Dublin Nordirland Navigationsmenü
Belfast - Nordirlands Hauptstadt. Belfast ist die zweitgrößte Stadt (nach Dublin) auf der irischen Insel und fungiert als Hauptstadt von Nordirland. Die Stadt liegt an. In der Metropolregion Dublin lebt etwa ein Drittel der 4,8 Millionen Einwohner. Es grenzt im Norden an Nordirland und damit an das Vereinigte Königreich. Nordirland (englisch Northern Ireland, irisch Tuaisceart Éireann) ist ein Land und Teil des Norden; Portrush (via Ballymena und Coleraine) nach Norden; Larne nach Nordosten; Dublin (via Portadown) nach Süden; Bangor nach Osten. Die Hauptstadt der Irischen Republik Dublin befindet sich an der Ostküste, die Hauptstadt Nordirlands ist Belfast - dies sind auch die beiden größten Städte. Auf unserer Insel gibt es zwei Bahngesellschaften: Irish Rail in der Republik Irland und Translink in Nordirland. Dublin und Belfast sind jeweils die wichtigsten.
Tagesausflug Nordirland: Höhepunkte mit Giant's Causeway von Dublin. Bewertungen. |. Dublin, Irland. Eine Mitteilung von Tagesausflug Nordirland: Höhepunkte mit Giant's Causeway von Dublin. Alle Tourenfahrzeuge sind jetzt mit einem Eco3-Luftreiniger. Auf unserer Insel gibt es zwei Bahngesellschaften: Irish Rail in der Republik Irland und Translink in Nordirland. Dublin und Belfast sind jeweils die wichtigsten. Dublin & Nordirland wir gehen dorthin, wohin die Iren gehen. Reisetermin: bis Juli / 6 Tage. Bei unserer kontrastreichen Rundreise werden Sie. Entdecken Sie die landschaftlichen Highlights von Nordirland und der Atlantikküste auf einer 5-Tage-Paket-Tour von Dublin. Besuchen Sie die Titanic Docks. 5-tägige Nordirland-Tour ab Dublin, Dublin. 5-tägige Nordirland-Tour ab Dublin in Dublin bei County Dublin, Irland buchen. Tagesausflug Nordirland: Höhepunkte mit Giant's Causeway von Dublin. Bewertungen. |. Dublin, Irland. Eine Mitteilung von Tagesausflug Nordirland: Höhepunkte mit Giant's Causeway von Dublin. Alle Tourenfahrzeuge sind jetzt mit einem Eco3-Luftreiniger.
On 11 January , legislators in Northern Ireland formed a government for the first time since the Executive of the 5th Northern Ireland Assembly collapsed in January ,  following the Renewable Heat Incentive scandal.
Unlike Southern Ireland , which would become the Irish Free State in , the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists , who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
However, a significant minority, mostly Catholics , were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule.
For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland , David Trimble , called a "cold house" for Catholics.
In the late s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, and chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles , which claimed over 3, lives and injured over 50, others.
The economy of Northern Ireland was the most industrialised of Ireland, declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles,  but economically growing significantly since the late s.
The initial growth came from the " peace dividend " and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism, investment and business from around the world.
Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century.
Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale , though, the region's Gaelic , Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English mainly Anglican and Scottish mainly Presbyterian settlers.
A rebellion in by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England, Scotland and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland — toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland.
In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants both Anglican and Presbyterian.
In , and contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick October , a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, which was felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the laws was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community.
In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks.
These events escalated at the end of the century following an event known as the Battle of the Diamond , which saw the supremacy of the Anglican and Presbyterian Peep o'Day Boys over the Catholic Defenders and leading to the formation of the Anglican Orange Order.
A rebellion in led by the cross-community Belfast-based Society of the United Irishmen and inspired by the French Revolution sought to break the constitutional ties between Ireland and Britain and unite Irish people of all religions.
Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws and to prevent the spread of French-style republicanism to Ireland , the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain pushed for the two kingdoms to be merged.
The new state, formed in , the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , was governed from a single government and parliament based in London.
Some , people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies between and During the 19th century, legal reforms started in the late 18th century continued to remove statutory discrimination against Catholics, and progressive programmes enabled tenant farmers to buy land from landlords.
In , after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords , and with a Liberal government dependent on Nationalist support, Home Rule became a near-certainty.
A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act , which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned.
The House of Lords veto had been the unionists' main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted because the majority of members of the House of Lords were unionists.
In response, opponents to Home Rule, from Conservative and Unionist Party leaders such as Bonar Law and Dublin-based barrister Sir Edward Carson to militant working class unionists in Ireland, threatened the use of violence.
In , they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers UVF , a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule.
Unionists were in a minority in Ireland as a whole, but in the northern province of Ulster they were a very large majority in County Antrim and County Down , small majorities in County Armagh and County Londonderry and a substantial minority in Ulster's five other counties.
Most of the remaining 26 counties which later became the Republic of Ireland were overwhelmingly majority-nationalist. During the Home Rule Crisis , the possibility was discussed of a "temporary" partition of these six counties from the rest of Ireland.
However, its implementation was suspended before it came into effect because of the outbreak of the First World War , and the Amending Bill to partition Ireland was abandoned.
The war was expected to last only a few weeks but in fact, lasted four years. By the end of the war during which the Easter Rising had taken place , the Act was seen as unimplementable.
Public opinion among nationalists had shifted during the war from a demand for home rule to one for full independence. In , David Lloyd George proposed a new bill be established by the cabinet's Walter Long Committee on Ireland, which by adopting findings of his Lloyd George's inconclusive Irish Convention would divide Ireland into two Home Rule areas: twenty-six counties being ruled from Dublin and six being ruled from Belfast.
Straddling these two areas would be a shared Lord Lieutenant of Ireland who would appoint both governments and a Council of Ireland , which Lloyd George believed would evolve into an all-Ireland parliament.
Events overtook the government. Under the terms of the treaty, Northern Ireland would become part of the Free State unless the government opted out by presenting an address to the king, although in practice partition remained in place.
As expected, the Houses of the Parliament of Northern Ireland resolved on 7 December the day after the establishment of the Irish Free State to exercise its right to opt out of the Free State by making an address to the King.
Shortly afterwards, the Boundary Commission was established to decide on the territorial boundaries between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland.
Owing to the outbreak of civil war in the Free State , the work of the commission was delayed until Leaders in Dublin expected a substantial reduction in the territory of Northern Ireland, with nationalist areas moving to the Free State.
However, the commission's report recommended only that some small portions of land should be ceded from Northern Ireland to the Free State and even that a small amount of land should be ceded from the Free State to Northern Ireland.
To prevent argument, this report was suppressed and, in exchange for a waiver to the Free State's obligations to the UK's public debt and the dissolution of the Council of Ireland sought by the Government of Northern Ireland , the initial six-county border was maintained with no changes.
The Ireland Act gave the first legal guarantee that the region would not cease to be part of the United Kingdom without the consent of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.
The Troubles, which started in the late s, consisted of about 30 years of recurring acts of intense violence during which 3, people were killed  with over 50, casualties.
The franchise for local government elections included only rate-payers and their spouses, and so excluded over a quarter of the electorate.
While the majority of disenfranchised electors were Protestant, Catholics were over-represented since they were poorer and had more adults still living in the family home.
NICRA's campaign, seen by many unionists as an Irish republican front, and the violent reaction to it, proved to be a precursor to a more violent period.
The state security forces — the British Army and the police the Royal Ulster Constabulary — were also involved in the violence.
The British government's position is that its forces were neutral in the conflict, trying to uphold law and order in Northern Ireland and the right of the people of Northern Ireland to democratic self-determination.
Republicans regarded the state forces as combatants in the conflict, pointing to the collusion between the state forces and the loyalist paramilitaries as proof of this.
The "Ballast" investigation by the Police Ombudsman has confirmed that British forces, and in particular the RUC, did collude with loyalist paramilitaries, were involved in murder, and did obstruct the course of justice when such claims had been investigated,  although the extent to which such collusion occurred is still hotly disputed.
As a consequence of the worsening security situation, autonomous regional government for Northern Ireland was suspended in Alongside the violence, there was a political deadlock between the major political parties in Northern Ireland, including those who condemned violence, over the future status of Northern Ireland and the form of government there should be within Northern Ireland.
In , Northern Ireland held a referendum to determine if it should remain in the United Kingdom, or be part of a united Ireland.
The vote went heavily in favour Approximately The Troubles were brought to an uneasy end by a peace process which included the declaration of ceasefires by most paramilitary organisations and the complete decommissioning of their weapons, the reform of the police, and the corresponding withdrawal of army troops from the streets and from sensitive border areas such as South Armagh and Fermanagh , as agreed by the signatories to the Belfast Agreement commonly known as the " Good Friday Agreement ".
This reiterated the long-held British position, which had never before been fully acknowledged by successive Irish governments, that Northern Ireland will remain within the United Kingdom until a majority of voters in Northern Ireland decides otherwise.
The Constitution of Ireland was amended in to remove a claim of the "Irish nation" to sovereignty over the entire island in Article 2. The new Articles 2 and 3 , added to the Constitution to replace the earlier articles, implicitly acknowledge that the status of Northern Ireland, and its relationships within the rest of the United Kingdom and with the Republic of Ireland, would only be changed with the agreement of a majority of voters in each jurisdiction.
This aspect was also central to the Belfast Agreement which was signed in and ratified by referendums held simultaneously in both Northern Ireland and the Republic.
At the same time, the British Government recognised for the first time, as part of the prospective, the so-called "Irish dimension": the principle that the people of the island of Ireland as a whole have the right, without any outside interference, to solve the issues between North and South by mutual consent.
It established a devolved power-sharing government within Northern Ireland, which must consist of both unionist and nationalist parties.
On 28 July , the Provisional IRA declared an end to its campaign and has since decommissioned what is thought to be all of its arsenal.
This final act of decommissioning was performed under the watch of the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning IICD and two external church witnesses.
Many unionists, however, remained sceptical. The IICD later confirmed that the main loyalist paramilitary groups, the Ulster Defence Association , UVF and the Red Hand Commando , had decommissioned what is thought to be all of their arsenals, witnessed by former archbishop Robin Eames and a former top civil servant.
Politicians elected to the Assembly at the Assembly election were called together on 15 May under the Northern Ireland Act  for the purpose of electing a First Minister and deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland and choosing the members of an Executive before 25 November as a preliminary step to the restoration of devolved government.
The main political divide in Northern Ireland is between unionists, who wish to see Northern Ireland continue as part of the United Kingdom, and nationalists, who wish to see Northern Ireland unified with the Republic of Ireland, independent from the United Kingdom.
These two opposing views are linked to deeper cultural divisions. Unionists are predominantly Ulster Protestant , descendants of mainly Scottish , English, and Huguenot settlers as well as Gaels who converted to one of the Protestant denominations.
Nationalists are overwhelmingly Catholic and descend from the population predating the settlement, with a minority from the Scottish Highlands as well as some converts from Protestantism.
Discrimination against nationalists under the Stormont government — gave rise to the civil rights movement in the s. While some unionists argue that discrimination was not just due to religious or political bigotry, but also the result of more complex socio-economic, socio-political and geographical factors,  its existence, and the manner in which nationalist anger at it was handled, were a major contributing factor to the Troubles.
The political unrest went through its most violent phase between and Opinion polls consistently show that the election results are not necessarily an indication of the electorate's stance regarding the constitutional status of Northern Ireland.
Most of the population of Northern Ireland are at least nominally Christian, mostly Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations.
For the most part, Protestants feel a strong connection with Great Britain and wish for Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom.
Many Catholics however, generally aspire to a United Ireland or are less certain about how to solve the constitutional question. Protestants have a slight majority in Northern Ireland, according to the latest Northern Ireland Census.
The make-up of the Northern Ireland Assembly reflects the appeals of the various parties within the population. Of the Members of the Legislative Assembly MLAs , 56 are unionists and 40 are nationalists the remaining 12 are classified as "other".
Since , Northern Ireland has had devolved government within the United Kingdom, presided over by the Northern Ireland Assembly and a cross-community government the Northern Ireland Executive.
Reserved matters comprise listed policy areas such as civil aviation , units of measurement , and human genetics that Parliament may devolve to the Assembly some time in the future.
Excepted matters such as international relations , taxation and elections are never expected to be considered for devolution. On all other governmental matters, the Executive together with the member Assembly may legislate for and govern Northern Ireland.
Additionally, "in recognition of the Irish Government's special interest in Northern Ireland", the Government of Ireland and Government of the United Kingdom co-operate closely on non-devolved matters through the British-Irish Intergovernmental Conference.
Elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly are by single transferable vote with five Members of the Legislative Assembly MLAs elected from each of 18 parliamentary constituencies.
In addition, eighteen representatives Members of Parliament, MPs are elected to the lower house of the UK parliament from the same constituencies using the first-past-the-post system.
However, not all of those elected take their seats. In addition, the upper house of the UK parliament, the House of Lords , currently has some 25 appointed members from Northern Ireland.
Additionally, the Republic's government also has the right to "put forward views and proposals" on non-devolved matters in relation to Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland is a distinct legal jurisdiction , separate from the two other jurisdictions in the United Kingdom England and Wales , and Scotland.
Northern Ireland law developed from Irish law that existed before the partition of Ireland in Northern Ireland is a common law jurisdiction and its common law is similar to that in England and Wales.
However, there are important differences in law and procedure between Northern Ireland and England and Wales. There is no generally accepted term to describe what Northern Ireland is: province, region, country or something else.
Owing in part to the way in which the United Kingdom, and Northern Ireland, came into being, there is no legally defined term to describe what Northern Ireland 'is'.
There is also no uniform or guiding way to refer to Northern Ireland amongst the agencies of the UK government. Unlike England, Scotland and Wales, Northern Ireland has no history of being an independent country or of being a nation in its own right.
Many commentators prefer to use the term "province", although that is also not without problems. It can arouse irritation, particularly among nationalists, for whom the title province is properly reserved for the traditional province of Ulster, of which Northern Ireland comprises six out of nine counties.
Some authors have described the meaning of this term as being equivocal: referring to Northern Ireland as being a province both of the United Kingdom and of the traditional country of Ireland.
Some authors choose this word but note that it is "unsatisfactory". Many people inside and outside Northern Ireland use other names for Northern Ireland, depending on their point of view.
Disagreement on names, and the reading of political symbolism into the use or non-use of a word, also attaches itself to some urban centres.
The most notable example is whether Northern Ireland's second city should be called "Derry" or "Londonderry". Choice of language and nomenclature in Northern Ireland often reveals the cultural, ethnic and religious identity of the speaker.
Those who do not belong to any group but lean towards one side often tend to use the language of that group. Although some news bulletins since the s have opted to avoid all contentious terms and use the official name, Northern Ireland, the term "the North" remains commonly used by broadcast media in the Republic.
Northern Ireland was covered by an ice sheet for most of the last ice age and on numerous previous occasions, the legacy of which can be seen in the extensive coverage of drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim and particularly Down.
The largest island of Northern Ireland is Rathlin , off the north Antrim coast. There are substantial uplands in the Sperrin Mountains an extension of the Caledonian mountain belt with extensive gold deposits, granite Mourne Mountains and basalt Antrim Plateau , as well as smaller ranges in South Armagh and along the Fermanagh—Tyrone border.
Belfast's most prominent peak is Cavehill. The volcanic activity which created the Antrim Plateau also formed the eerily geometric pillars of the Giant's Causeway on the north Antrim coast.
The Lower and Upper River Bann , River Foyle and River Blackwater form extensive fertile lowlands, with excellent arable land also found in North and East Down, although much of the hill country is marginal and suitable largely for animal husbandry.
The valley of the River Lagan is dominated by Belfast, whose metropolitan area includes over a third of the population of Northern Ireland, with heavy urbanisation and industrialisation along the Lagan Valley and both shores of Belfast Lough.
The vast majority of Northern Ireland has a temperate maritime climate , Cfb in the Koeppen climate classification rather wetter in the west than the east, although cloud cover is very common across the region.
The weather is unpredictable at all times of the year, and although the seasons are distinct, they are considerably less pronounced than in interior Europe or the eastern seaboard of North America.
Average daytime maximums in Belfast are 6. The highest maximum temperature recorded was Northern Ireland is the least forested part of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and one of the least forested parts of Europe.
These counties are no longer used for local government purposes; instead, there are eleven districts of Northern Ireland which have different geographical extents.
These were created in , replacing the twenty-six districts which previously existed. Although counties are no longer used for local governmental purposes, they remain a popular means of describing where places are.
They are officially used while applying for an Irish passport , which requires one to state one's county of birth.
The name of that county then appears in both Irish and English on the passport's information page, as opposed to the town or city of birth on the United Kingdom passport.
The Gaelic Athletic Association still uses the counties as its primary means of organisation and fields representative teams of each GAA county.
The original system of car registration numbers largely based on counties still remains in use. In , the telephone numbering system was restructured into an 8 digit scheme with except for Belfast the first digit approximately reflecting the county.
With their decline in official use, there is often confusion surrounding towns and cities which lie near county boundaries, such as Belfast and Lisburn , which are split between counties Down and Antrim the majorities of both cities, however, are in Antrim.
Northern Ireland has traditionally had an industrial economy, most notably in shipbuilding, rope manufacture and textiles, but most heavy industry has since been replaced by services, primarily the public sector.
Seventy percent of the economy's revenue comes from the service sector. Tourism has been a major growth area since the end of the Troubles.
Key tourism attractions include the historic cities of Derry, Belfast and Armagh and the many castles in Northern Ireland. These large firms are attracted by government subsidies and the skilled workforce in Northern Ireland.
The local economy has seen contraction during the Great Recession. In response, the Northern Ireland Assembly has sent trade missions abroad.
The Executive wishes to gain taxation powers from London, to align Northern Ireland's corporation tax rate with the unusually low rate of the Republic of Ireland.
Northern Ireland has underdeveloped transport infrastructure , with most infrastructure concentrated around Greater Belfast, Greater Derry and Craigavon.
Passenger railways are operated by Northern Ireland Railways. The only preserved line of this gauge is the Downpatrick and County Down Railway , which operates steam and diesel locomotives.
Main railway lines linking to and from Belfast Great Victoria Street railway station and Lanyon Place railway station are:.
The cross-border road connecting the ports of Larne in Northern Ireland and Rosslare Harbour in the Republic of Ireland is being upgraded as part of an EU-funded scheme.
The population of Northern Ireland has risen yearly since The population in was 1. The population of Northern Ireland is almost entirely white The largest non-white ethnic groups were Chinese 6, and Indian 6, Black people of various origins made up 0.
At the census, Those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn , from which Dyflin took its name.
The area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy the Greco-Roman astronomer and cartographer in about AD provide possibly the earliest reference to a settlement there.
Dublin celebrated its 'official' millennium in , meaning the Irish government recognised as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would later become the city of Dublin.
It is now thought  the Viking settlement of about was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn , from which Dyflin took its name.
Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which later became the modern Dublin. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle , a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay.
The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships. This pool was finally fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew.
Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained largely under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves.
Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mounting a larger invasion in and pronounced himself Lord of Ireland.
This continued down to when the barony of Dublin City was separated from the barony of Dublin. Since , both baronies have been redesignated as the City of Dublin.
Dublin Castle , which became the centre of Norman power in Ireland, was founded in as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England.
Dublin prospered as a trade centre, despite an attempt by King Robert I of Scotland to capture the city in In , the Black Death , a lethal plague which had ravaged Europe, took hold in Dublin and killed thousands over the following decade.
Dublin was incorporated into the English Crown as the Pale , which was a narrow strip of English settlement along the eastern seaboard.
The Tudor conquest of Ireland in the 16th century spelt a new era for Dublin, with the city enjoying a renewed prominence as the centre of administrative rule in Ireland.
Patrick's and Christ Church cathedrals be converted to Protestant. The city had a population of 21, in before a plague in —51 wiped out almost half of the city's inhabitants.
However, the city prospered again soon after as a result of the wool and linen trade with England, reaching a population of over 50, in As the city continued to prosper during the 18th century, Georgian Dublin became, for a short period, the second largest city of the British Empire and the fifth largest city in Europe, with the population exceeding , The vast majority of Dublin's most notable architecture dates from this period — the Four Courts , the Custom House , Temple Bar and Grafton Street are some of the few remaining areas that were not affected by the wave of Georgian reconstruction and maintained their medieval character.
Dublin grew even more dramatically during the 18th century, with the construction of many new districts and buildings, such as Merrion Square , Parliament House and the Royal Exchange.
The Wide Streets Commission was established in at the request of Dublin Corporation to govern architectural standards on the layout of streets, bridges and buildings.
In , the Guinness brewery was founded; and would eventually grow to become the largest brewery in the world and the largest employer in Dublin.
Dublin suffered a period of political and economic decline during the 19th century following the Acts of Union , under which the seat of government was transferred to the Westminster Parliament in London.
The city played no major role in the Industrial Revolution , but remained the centre of administration and a transport hub for most of the island.
Ireland had no significant sources of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin was not a centre of ship manufacturing, the other main driver of industrial development in Britain and Ireland.
The Easter Rising of , the Irish War of Independence , and the subsequent Irish Civil War resulted in a significant amount of physical destruction in central Dublin.
Since the beginning of Norman rule in the 12th century, the city has functioned as the capital in varying geopolitical entities: Lordship of Ireland — , Kingdom of Ireland — , as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland — , and the Irish Republic — Following the partition of Ireland in , it became the capital of the Irish Free State — and now is the capital of Ireland.
One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance. Dublin was also a victim of the Northern Irish Troubles , although during this year conflict, violence mainly occurred within Northern Ireland.
A Loyalist paramilitary group, the Ulster Volunteer Force , bombed the city during this time — notably in an atrocity known as the Dublin and Monaghan bombings in which 34 people died, mainly in central Dublin.
Since , the landscape of Dublin has changed. The city was at the forefront of Ireland's economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period, with private sector and state development of housing, transport and business.
Following an economic decline during the Great Recession, Dublin has rebounded and as of [update] has close to full employment,  but a significant problem with housing supply in both city and surrounds.
From , the boundaries of the city were comprehended by the baronies of Dublin City and the Barony of Dublin. In , the boundaries were extended by the Local Government Dublin Act.
Dublin City Council is a unicameral assembly of 63  members elected every five years from Local Election Areas.
It is presided over by the Lord Mayor , who is elected for a yearly term and resides in Dublin's Mansion House. The party or coalition of parties with the majority of seats assigns committee members, introduces policies, and proposes the Lord Mayor.
The Council passes an annual budget for spending on areas such as housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage, and planning. The Dublin City Manager is responsible for implementing City Council decisions but also has considerable executive power.
As the capital city, Dublin is the seat of the national parliament of Ireland, the Oireachtas. It has been the home of the Irish parliament since the creation of the Irish Free State in It consists of a main building completed with two wings completed The Irish Free State government took over the two wings of the building to serve as a temporary home for some ministries, while the central building became the College of Technology until Nineteen TD's are elected in total.
It is bordered by the Dublin Mountains, a low mountain range and sub range of the Wicklow Mountains , to the south and surrounded by flat farmland to the north and west.
The River Liffey divides the city in two, between the Northside and the Southside. The Liffey bends at Leixlip from a northeasterly route to a predominantly eastward direction, and this point also marks the transition to urban development from more agricultural land usage.
A number of lesser rivers and streams also flow to the sea. A north—south division once, to some extent, traditionally existed, with the River Liffey as the divider.
In some tourism and real-estate marketing contexts, inner Dublin is sometimes divided into a number of "quarters" or districts. Similar to much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Dublin experiences a maritime climate Cfb with mild-warm summers, cool winters, and a lack of temperature extremes.
The average maximum January temperature is 8. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. Dublin's sheltered location on the east coast makes it the driest place in Ireland, receiving only about half the rainfall of the west coast.
The main precipitation in winter is rain; however snow showers do occur between November and March. Hail is more common than snow.
The city experiences long summer days and short winter days. Strong Atlantic winds are most common in autumn.
These winds can affect Dublin, but due to its easterly location, it is least affected compared to other parts of the country.
However, in winter, easterly winds render the city colder and more prone to snow showers. In the 20th century, smog and air-pollution were an issue in the city, precipitating a ban on bituminous fuels across Dublin.
Since the ban, non-trauma death rates, respiratory death rates and cardiovascular death rates have declined — by an estimated deaths annually.
Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years. One of the oldest is Dublin Castle , which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of England's King John in , shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland in , when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, the administration of justice, and the protection of the King's treasure.
Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the River Poddle as a natural means of defence.
One of Dublin's newest monuments is the Spire of Dublin , officially entitled the "Monument of Light. It replaces Nelson's Pillar and is intended to mark Dublin's place in the 21st century.
The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects ,  who sought an "Elegant and dynamic simplicity bridging art and technology".
The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky across the city. The Ha'penny Bridge , an iron footbridge over the River Liffey, is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin and is considered to be one of Dublin's most iconic landmarks.
Other sights include the Anna Livia monument. The Poolbeg Towers are also landmark features of Dublin, and visible from various spots around the city.
There are many green-spaces around the city, and Dublin City Council manages over 1, hectares 3, acres of parks. Music concerts are also sometimes held in the park.
St Stephen's Green is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street , and to a shopping centre named for it , while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies.
Saint Anne's Park is a public park and recreational facility, shared between Raheny and Clontarf , both suburbs on the Northside. The park, the second largest municipal park in Dublin, is part of a former 2-square-kilometre 0.
The Dublin region is the economic centre of Ireland, and was at the forefront of the country's economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period.
In , Dublin was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and 10th richest by personal income. A number of Dublin's traditional industries, such as food processing, textile manufacturing, brewing, and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness has been brewed at the St.
James's Gate Brewery since Economic improvements in the s attracted a number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and Greater Dublin Area.
The presence of these companies has driven economic expansion in the city and led to Dublin sometimes being referred to as the "Tech Capital of Europe".
Financial services have also become important to the city since the establishment of Dublin's International Financial Services Centre in More than operations are approved to trade under the IFSC programme.
The centre is host to half of the world's top 50 banks and to half of the top 20 insurance companies. Dublin has been positioned as one of the main cities vying to host Financial Services companies hoping to retain access to the Eurozone after Brexit.
The Celtic Tiger also led to a temporary boom in construction, with large redevelopment projects in the Dublin Docklands and Spencer Dock.
In the second quarter of , Dublin touched its lowest unemployment rate in a decade, when it fell down to 5. The road network in Ireland is primarily focused on Dublin.
The M50 motorway , a semi- ring road which runs around the south, west and north of the city, connects important national primary routes to the rest of the country.
In , the West-Link toll bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system, with a three-tiered charge system based on electronic tags and car pre-registration.
The first phase of a proposed eastern bypass for the city is the Dublin Port Tunnel , which officially opened in to mainly cater for heavy vehicles.
The city is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs approximately around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs primarily along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canals, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal , as well as the North and South Circular Roads.
The TomTom Traffic Index ranked Dublin the 15th most congested city in the world and the 7th most congested in Europe.
Dublin is served by a network of nearly bus routes which cover the city and suburbs. The majority of these are provided by Dublin Bus , with a modest number having been transferred to Go Ahead Ireland in , but a number of smaller companies also operate.
Fares are generally calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled. There are several different levels of fares, which apply on most services.
Electronically displayed signs relay information about the time of the next buses arrival based on its GPS determined position. The National Transport Authority is responsible for integration of bus and rail services in Dublin and has been involved in introducing a pre-paid smart card, called a Leap card , which can be used on all of Dublin's public transport services.
The Census showed that 5. Dublinbikes is a self-service bicycle rental scheme which has been in operation in Dublin since Sponsored by JCDecaux and Just Eat , the scheme consists of hundreds of unisex bicycles stationed at 44 terminals throughout the city centre.
Users must make a subscription for either an annual Long Term Hire Card or purchase a three-day ticket. Heuston and Connolly stations are the two main railway termini in Dublin.
Dublin once had an extensive system of trams but this was largely phased out by Together these lines comprise a total 67 stations and A metro service is proposed under the name of Metrolink , and planned to run from Dublin's northside to Sandyford via Dublin Airport and St.
Stephen's Green , with construction projected to start after The headquarters of Ireland's flag carrier Aer Lingus and regional airlines Stobart Air and CityJet are located there, and those of low-cost carrier Ryanair nearby.
The airport offers a short and medium haul network, domestic services to regional airports in Ireland, and long-haul services to the United States, Canada, the Middle East and Hong Kong.
Dublin Airport is the 11th busiest in the European Union,  and by far the busiest airport on the island of Ireland.
From to , Dublin Airport saw an increase of nearly 9. Dublin is also served by Weston Airport and other small facilities, by a range of helicopter operators, and the military and some State services use Casement Aerodrome nearby.
Dublin is the largest centre of education in Ireland, and is home to four universities and a number of other higher education institutions.
It was the European Capital of Science in The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland, dating from the 16th century, and is located in the city centre.
It was closed to Roman Catholics until , and the Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics from attending until Founded in , it is now the largest university in Ireland.
As of , Dublin's principal, and Ireland's largest, institution for technological education and research, Dublin Institute of Technology DIT , with origins in , has merged with two major suburban third level institutions, Institute of Technology, Tallaght and Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown , to form Technological University Dublin , Ireland's second largest university by student population.
The new university offers a wide range of courses in areas include engineering, architecture, the sciences, health, journalism, digital media, hospitality, business, art and design, music and the humanities programmes, and has three long-term campuses, at Grangegorman , Tallaght and Blanchardstown.
Dublin is also home to the Royal Irish Academy , membership of which is considered Ireland's highest academic honour.
The Irish public administration and management training centre has its base in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and post graduate awards via the National University of Ireland and in some instances, Queen's University Belfast.
Together, the four areas form the traditional County Dublin. This area is sometimes known as the Dublin Region.
The population of the administrative area controlled by the City Council was , in the census,  while the population of the urban area was 1,, The area's population is expanding rapidly, and it is estimated by the Central Statistics Office that it will reach 2.
After World War Two, Italians were by far the largest immigrant group in both Dublin and Ireland and became synonymous with the catering and restaurant landscape.
Dublin is home to a greater proportion of newer arrivals than any other part of the country. Sixty percent of Ireland's Asian population lives in Dublin.
The capital attracts the largest proportion of non-Catholic migrants from other countries. Increased secularisation in Ireland has prompted a drop in regular Catholic church attendance in Dublin from over 90 percent in the mids down to 14 percent according to a survey.
According to the census, the population of Dublin was Additionally, 2. It is also the location of key and notable works of James Joyce , including Ulysses , which is set in Dublin and includes much topical detail.
Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and typical characters of the city during the early 20th century.
Other renowned writers include J. The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, and also opens its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films.
The Abbey was founded in by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as Synge , Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw.
Apart from being the focus of the country's literature and theatre, Dublin is also the focal point for much of Irish art and the Irish artistic scene.
Coleraine Borough Council, har derimod sit navn fra byen Coleraine i amtet Londonderry. Mellem og med undtagelse af en kort suspendering og siden maj , er selvstyret og decentraliseringen vendt tilbage til Nordirland.
Store havne i Larne og Belfast sejler passagerer og gods mellem Storbritannien og Nordirland. Passager jernbaner drives af Northern Ireland Railways.
Ulster Scots omfatter dele af det skotske sprog, der tales i Nordirland. Andrews aftalen anerkender dog behovet for ar "forbedre og udvikle det Ulster-Scots'ske sprog, arv og kultur.
Der er et stigende antal etniske minoriteter i Nordirland. Der er ingen kildehenvisninger i denne artikel, hvilket er et problem.
Skytshelgen : Skt. Uddybende artikler: Nordirlands historie og Irlands historie. Uddybende artikel: Transport i Nordirland.
Dublin Nordirland VideoDay Trip to Northern Ireland, Belfast from Dublin by Tour (Giants Causeway \u0026 Carrick-a-rede) Precipitation totals in inches. This Kirsten Dunst Jumanji the venue for home games of both the Irish Rugby Union Team and the Republic of Ireland national football team. Both of them were excellent in every way possible. Answers to the question "Do you think the long-term policy for Northern Ireland should be for it to [one of the following"], ark. British people. Politicians elected to the Assembly Mit Paypal Гјberweisen the Assembly election were called together on 15 May under the Northern Ireland Act  for the purpose of electing a First Minister and deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland and choosing the members of an Executive before 25 November as a preliminary step Beste Spielothek in WГјrschwitz finden the restoration of devolved government. Census During the Home Rule Crisisthe possibility was discussed of Dublin Nordirland "temporary" partition of these six counties from the rest of Ireland. The TomTom Traffic Index ranked Dublin the 15th most congested city in the world and the Etwas Das Man Spart 94 most congested in Europe.
De voldelige kampagner er blevet kendt og udbredt som The Troubles. Fra at tjene som grundfjeldet for den irske modstand i koloniperioden under Elizabeth 1.
I det tidlige Disse seks grevskaber, indeholdende et samlet unionistflertal, blev senere til Nordirland. Modstanderne af hjemmestyre, fra det konservative partis ledere, som Andrew Bonar Law , til militante unionister i Irland, truede med at bruge vold og stod for Larne Gun Running -begivenheden i , da de smuglede tusinder af rifler og ammunition fra Det Tyske Kejserrige til Ulster Volunteer Force.
Udsigten til borgerkrig i Irland tonede frem. Irland blev delt i under betingelserne i Government of Ireland Act , Medens Sydirland kun havde en kort eksistensperiode mellem og , en periode der blev domineret af den Anglo-Irske krig og dennes eftervirkning, fortsatte Nordirland sin eksistens.
I den tro, at Churchill ikke ville kunne holde ord, afslog Valera. Disse blev dannet i og tallet. De 11 distrikter erstattede i de 26 tidligere distrikter, der blev dannet i Coleraine Borough Council, har derimod sit navn fra byen Coleraine i amtet Londonderry.
Mellem og med undtagelse af en kort suspendering og siden maj , er selvstyret og decentraliseringen vendt tilbage til Nordirland.
Store havne i Larne og Belfast sejler passagerer og gods mellem Storbritannien og Nordirland. Passager jernbaner drives af Northern Ireland Railways.
Ulster Scots omfatter dele af det skotske sprog, der tales i Nordirland. Andrews aftalen anerkender dog behovet for ar "forbedre og udvikle det Ulster-Scots'ske sprog, arv og kultur.
Outside Sligo Town lies Carrowmore, where you have the chance to visit the largest collection of megalithic tombs in Ireland, some of which date back over years.
Here you have time to savour the rugged sea and peaceful beauty. From here it is a short drive to Westport — your base for the next two nights.
Westport and the Connemara National Park are the areas you explore today. The itinerary is flexible today and your guide will ensure you take the route that best suits the weather.
Traveling through the heart of Connemara, you arrive in the town of Cong on the shore of Lough Corrib. Alternatively, you can visit the magnificently restored 12th century Cong Abbey.
Your route then weaves through the Maam Valley, a stunning pass lined by gorgeous mountains. Exiting the valley, you head to Galway City, a vibrant harbour city that combines traditional market life with high quality restaurants and pubs.
This is the oldest licensed distillery in the country, and boasts a superb museum. My wife and I have already been on five Rabbies tours and this will make the sixth.
We actually did the 9 day tour which covers most of Ireland and had two amazing guides Dave for the first five days and John for the final four days.
Both of them were excellent in every way possible. Their vast knowledge of the history, geography, flora and fauna and generally everything interesting was just fantastic, not to mention their wonderful sense of humour.
We were taken to places out of this world and travelled routes off the beaten track to see amazing sites of nature.
Rabbies choices of accommodation were first class and we enjoyed every place we stayed. Each host was very accommodating and pleasant and the food was exceptional.
Overall we are now looking forward to our next trip and will maybe try for one of the European tours. Thank you Dave and thank you John and thank you Rabbies for everything.
Most enjoyable 5 days touring Ireland. Driver, Gabriel was most friendly and informative. Wonderful travelling companions. Thanks for the craic Gabriel.
I have just returned from a wonderful 5 day tour of Ireland. The scenery was amazing and the tour guide Gabriel provided the most interesting historical commentary.
In addition he was helpful and accommodating to the individual needs of passengers. A fascinating tour, with a fabulous guide, which is highly recommended.
Es war bereits meine 3. Er ist auf die Wünsche und Befindlichkeiten aller Tourteilnehmer immer sofort eingegangen und hat sehr viel Informationen über Land und Leute mit uns geteilt.
Dann hat Rabbies wieder super schöne Unterkünfte gebucht. Sie befanden sich immer in Zentrum- oder Hafennähe. Die gesamte Organisation war wieder einmal sehr gut!
Sogar das mit dem Wetter hat super eklappt - Wir hatten die gesamten 5 Tage blauen Himmel und Sonne satt. Fazit: Immer wieder gerne und es gibt 5 Sterne von mir!!!
Loved the land and seascapes. Achill Island was so beautiful and serene. So knowledgeable about history, Irish and Celtic music and always sharing tips on where to eat and pubs to visit when we had free time in the evenings.
Highly recommend this tour and hope you are as fortunate as us to have Feargal at the helm. Der Tourpreis beinhaltet nicht die Kosten der Unterkunft.
Oder Sie suchen bzw. Sie bezahlen die Übernachtungen vor Ort direkt bei den Gastgebern. Bitte nehmen Sie dafür ausreichend Bargeld mit, denn zahlreiche Unterkünfte akzeptieren keine Kreditkarten.
Wenn das der Fall ist, buchen wir die Unterkunft, die Sie uns als 2. Wahl genannt haben. Falls Rückfragen erforderlich sind, werden wir uns mit Ihnen in Verbindung setzen.
Die Möglichkeit zu einer Buchungsänderung kann nicht garantiert werden und ist abhängig von den Verfügbarkeiten. Bitte kontaktieren Sie uns und nennen Sie uns Ihre selbst gebuchten Unterkünfte.
Bitte buchen Sie nur Unterkünfte in den jeweiligen, im Programmablauf ausgeschriebenen Übernachtungsorten. Ihr Fahrer wird Sie an der von Ihnen gewählten Unterkunft absetzten, vorausgesetzt sie liegt relativ zentral im ausgeschriebenen Übernachtungsort.
In einigen Fällen berechnen wir auch die Kosten aller gebuchten Unterkünfte. In der Regel liegen die von uns gebuchten Unterkünfte nicht weiter als 20 Gehminuten von der jeweiligen Stadt- bzw.
Ortsmitte entfernt. Die unterstehenden Preise sind lediglich zur Orientierung gedacht. Das Frühstück ist im Preis inklusive.
Die Zahl der Zimmer mit besonderem Ausblick ist begrenzt und in der Regel mit einen Aufpreis versehen. Hotels haben eine Bar oder Restaurant und bieten Abendmahlzeiten an.
Das Frühstück am Morgen ist im Preis inklusive. In den Jugendherbergen schläft man in der Regel in Mehrbettzimmer bzw. Schlafsälen für 4 bis 16 Personen Doppelstockbetten.
Handtücher sind im Preis nicht enthalten, können aber vor Ort gegen eine Gebühr ausgeliehen werden. Die Wasch- und Duschräume liegen in kurzer Entfernung zu den Schlafräumen.
Es steht eine gut ausgestattete Gemeinschaftsküche zur Verfügung, in der eigene Mahlzeiten zubereitet werden können.
Bitte informieren Sie uns im Vorfeld über Ihre Vorstellungen. The UK and Ireland's historic city centres are full of narrow streets and winding roads.
So, to speed up your departure, we only pick up from our central meeting points. What's more is leaving the city using the most direct route also reduces the carbon footprint of our tours.
We don't recommend bringing your car into the centre of our departure cities. It can be hard to find parking, and there are excellent public transportation services.
Arrive 15 minutes before your departure time. Due to waiting restrictions, we can't wait for you if you're late. We have a cancellation period of three days for our one day tours, and 21 days for longer tours.
If you cancel inside this period, refunds are at our discretion. Click here to view full terms and conditions.
It's simple: you book, you go. This means we'll never cancel your tour because of a minimum numbers policy.
Due to logistical reasons, we're unable to let you pre-book a seat on the bus. But our comfortable seat mini-coaches have huge windows.
So, you'll always get a good view. We aim to accommodate everyone. To read more information on how we do this, click here to go to our accessibility guide.
You can ask us about the tours we recommend for younger children. And if your child is less than 1.
We want you to enjoy Britain and Ireland. And we believe the best way to do this is to get you off the mini-coach and out exploring.
So, we give you plenty of time to take photos, go walking, and explore ancient ruins. We exclude visitor attractions in your tour price because it lets you travel your way.